Patient with inability to open mouth following depressed zygoma fracture
The patient is a middle-aged man from Hassan, Karnataka. He suffered a comminuted zygoma fracture from a road accident. Improper reduction elsewhere had left him with a depressed zygoma and trismus. The depressed zygoma led to facial asymmetry and impingement of the coronoid process. This resulted in a mouth opening of only 1 cm for the patient. The patient had complaints of inability to eat well as well as impaired speech. He was becoming withdrawn and avoiding social interaction.
This became a hindrance to normal functioning in day to day life. His friends searched for the best hospital to get his asymmetry corrected. They took him to a local oral surgeon who studied the case in depth. Findings were somewhat complicated and needed an experienced surgeon. He was then referred to our hospital for correction of his complaints.
Various aspects of correction of facial asymmetry
No human face has perfect symmetry. Perfect symmetry is impossible in biological organisms. There is always a small degree of asymmetry present in all structures. The human face is no exception to this law of nature. This facial asymmetry is imperceptible in 99.90% of the population. It is only in a small minority that there is noticeable asymmetry. This asymmetry could be congenital or acquired. Congenital facial asymmetry could be the result of birth defects or injuries. Improper use of forceps during delivery can result in facial asymmetry.
Cleft lip and palate deformities result in severe facial deformities. Correction of this requires the services of an experienced cleft surgeon. The majority of acquired facial asymmetry is through trauma. An asymmetrical face can lead to psychological problems. The patient becomes very self conscious and withdraws from social interactions.
Types of presentation of asymmetry of the face
Facial asymmetry can involve the soft tissues alone or can involve the hard tissues also. Treatment options depend upon the location and degree of asymmetry. The main aim of treatment is to restore facial symmetry. We are one of the premier hospitals for facial asymmetry correction in India. Correction of the asymmetry of his face will undergo correction here. Jaw surgery is among the most common asymmetry correction surgeries performed in India. Orthognathic surgery can also correct facial asymmetry. Both maxillofacial as well as craniofacial surgeons perform these surgeries.
Treatment planning explained to the patient in detail for correction of problems
Dr SM Balaji, a premier facial deformity correction surgeon in India, examined the patient. He specializes in all manifestations of facial asymmetry. A world renowned cleft surgeon, all types of facial asymmetry undergo correction here. Facial asymmetry due to paralysis is also corrected at our hospital. Patients undergoing rehabilitation are able to lead a completely normal life after surgery. Their ability to smile restored, they are able to face life with dignity and self confidence.
Clinical examination revealed impingement of the left coronoid process during mouth opening. The patient had a mouth opening of only 1 cm. There was a depressed left zygoma with resultant facial asymmetry. He explained the treatment planning to the patient, which included a left coronoidectomy. This would enable good mouth opening again for the patient. The patient was in agreement and consented to the facial deformity correction surgery.
Left coronoidectomy performed on the patient to enable mouth opening
The patient underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopic intubation for general anesthesia. This was due to his inability to open his mouth for oral intubation. A tracheostomy would have to be performed otherwise. Once under satisfactory general anesthesia, a left retromolar incision was first made. The coronoid process was then accessed. A coronoidectomy was next performed and the coronoid process removed. The patient’s mouth opening was then demonstrated to be about 5 cm. This falls within the parameters of normal mouth opening. The incision was then closed with sutures.
Depressed zygoma elevated and fixed with plates for facial asymmetry correction
The depressed zygoma was next addressed. It was impinging on the coronoid process during mouth opening. This was preventing full opening of the mouth. Zygomatic bone was then approached through two approaches. They were through the maxillary vestibular incision and lateral canthal incision. The zygoma was first refractured to set right the depression. It was then fixed in an elevated position with the use of plates. Both incisions were then closed with sutures. The patient expressed his total satisfaction at the results of the surgery.